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Condicionales

La forma condicional de los verbos se utiliza en la construcción de las oraciones condicionales de 2º tipo (en inglés hay 3 tipos de oraciones condicionales que veremos en siguientes lecciones). Este 2º tipo de condicional se caracteriza porque la cláusula condicional es muy improbable que se cumpla, aunque no imposible. En estas oraciones, el verbo de la cláusula principal se pone en condicional: If I worked harder, I would pass the exam. Si yo trabajara más, pasaría el examen (la cláusula condicional es improbable que se cumpla, aunque no imposible). If I ate more, I would be very fat. Si yo comiera más, estaría muy gordo (no es probable que coma más) También se utiliza la forma condicional como el equivalente al futuro, desde un tiempo pasado: I think that she will buy a car. Pienso que ella se comprará un coche (el punto de partida de la oración es el presente) I thought that she would buy a car. Pensaba que ella se compraría un coche (el punto de partida de la oración es el pasado) El tiempo condicional se construye con "would" más el infinitivo del verbo principal (aunque con la primera persona del singular y del plural también se puede utilizar "should"): You would learn Spanish. Tú estudiarías español We would go to the beach. Nosotros iríamos a la playa La forma negativa se construye interponiendo la negación "not" entre la forma auxiliar "would" y el verbo principal. Se puede utilizar también las contracción "wouldn't" (y también "shouldn't" con la primera persona del singular y plural): You would not say that. Tú no dirías eso We shouldn´t buy that house. Nosotros no compraríamos esa casa La forma interrogativa negativa se forma colocando la negación "not" entre el sujeto y el verbo principal. Aunque también se puede utilizar la contracción "wouldn´t" (o "shouldn't), en cuyo caso irían al comienzo de la oración: Would you not go to the party? ¿No irías a la fiesta? Wouldn't you go to the party?

Condicional perfecto

El "perfect condicional" se utiliza para construir las oraciones condicionales de 3er tipo. Este 3er tipo de oración condicional se caracteriza porque la cláusula condicional no se puede cumplir y, por lo tanto, la cláusula principal no se va a realizar: If I had worked , I would have passed the exam. Si yo hubiera trabajado, habría pasado el examen(pero como no trabajé, no he podido pasar dicho examen). If you had come, you would have seen my brother. Si hubieras venido, habrías visto a mi hermano(pero como no lo hiciste, no lo has podido ver). También se utiliza como equivalente en el pasado del futuro perfecto (future perfect): Before 10 o'clock I will have finished my homework. Antes de las 10, habré terminado los deberes (la acción se va a desarrollar en el futuro, pero la afirmación se ha realizado en el presente). I thought that before 10 o'clock I would have finished my homework. Pensaba que antes de las 10, habría terminado los deberes (en este caso, la acción se iba a desarrollar en el futuro, pero a partir de un punto de partida situado en el pasado). El "conditional perfect" se construye con la forma condicional del auxiliar "to have", acompañado del participio (past participle) del verbo principal (en la primera persona del singular y del plurar se puede utilizar "should" en lugar de "would"): I woul have visited my brother. Yo habría visitado a mi hermano She would have bought a car. Ella se habría comprado un coche La forma negativa se construye interponiendo la negación "not" entre la forma auxiliar "would" y la forma infinitiva "have". Se puede utilizar también la contracción "wouldn't" (y "shouldn't" con la primera persona del singular y plural): You would not have said that. Tú no habrías dicho eso You wouldn't have said that. La forma interrogativa se forma comenzando la oración por la forma auxiliar "would", seguido del sujeto , de la forma infinitiva "have" y del verbo principal: Would you have gone to the party? ¿Habrías ido a la fiesta? Would she have cooked the dinner? ¿Habría preparado ella la cena? La forma interrogativa negativa se forma empezando la oración por "would", seguido del sujeto, de la negación "not", de la forma infinitiva "have" y del verbo principal. También se podría utilizar la contracción "wouldn't" que iria al comienzo de la oración: Wouldn´t you have gone to the party? ¿No habrías ido a la fiesta? Wouldn´t she have cooked the dinner? ¿No habría ella preparado la cena?

Zero Conditional Introduction The zero conditional is a structure used for talking about general truths — things which always happen under certain conditions. This page will explain how the zero conditional is formed, and when to use it. 1. The structure of a zero conditional sentence A zero conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an “if” clause and a main clause (In most zero conditional sentences you can use when or if and the meaning will stay the same.): “if” clause main clause If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils. If the “if” clause comes first, a comma is usually used. If the “if” clause comes second, there is no need for a comma: main clause “if” clause Water boils if you heat it to 100 degrees, We use the same verb form in each part of a zero conditional: the simple present tense: “if” clause if + subject + simple present verb main clause subject + simple present verb 2. Using the zero conditional The zero conditional is used to talk about things which are always true — such as scientific facts and general truths: Example Explanation If you cross an international date line, the time changes. This always happens — every time you cross a date line. If it rains, the grass gets wet. This is basically always true — the rain makes the grass wet. Wood doesn't burn if there is no air. This is a scientific fact — wood needs air in order to burn. No air = no fire. When you are sure that you understand the lesson, you can continue with the exercises. First Conditional Introduction The first conditional (also called conditional type 1) is a structure used for talking about possibilities in the present or in the future. This page will explain how the first conditional is formed, and when to use it. 1. The structure of a first conditional sentence A first conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an "if" clause and a main clause: if clause main clause If you study hard, you will pass the test. If the "if" clause comes first, a comma is usually used. If the "if" clause comes second, there is no need for a comma: main clause if clause You will pass the test if you study hard. We use different verb forms in each part of a first conditional: main clause if clause You will pass the test if you study hard. 2. Using the first conditional The first conditional is used to talk about things which are possible in the present or the future — things which may happen: Example Explanation If it's sunny, we'll go to the park. Maybe it will be sunny — that's possible. Paula will be sad if Juan leaves. Maybe Juan will leave — that's possible. If you cook the supper, I'll wash the dishes. Maybe you will cook the supper — that's possible. When you are sure that you understand the lesson, you can continue with the exercises.

Second Conditional Introduction The second conditional (also called conditional type 2) is a structure used for talking about unreal situations in the present or in the future. This page will explain how the second conditional is formed, and when to use it. The structure of a second conditional sentence Like a first conditional, a second conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an “if” clause and a main clause: “If” clause Main clause If I had a million dollars, I would buy a big house. If the “if” clause comes first, a comma is usually used. If the “if” clause comes second, there is no need for a comma: Main clause “If” clause I would buy a big house if I had a million dollars. We use different verb forms in each part of a second conditional: “If” clause if + subject + simple past verb* Main clause subject + would + verb *Note that this "simple past" form is slightly different from usual in the case of the verb BE. Whatever the subject, the verb form is "were", not "was": If I were rich, I'd buy a big house. Using the second conditional The second conditional is used to talk about things which are unreal (not true or not possible) in the present or the future -- things which don't or won't happen: Example Explanation If I were you, I would drive more carefully in the rain. I am not you — this is unreal. Paula would be sad if Jan left. Jan will not leave — that's not going to happen. If dogs had wings, they would be able to fly. Dogs don't have wings — that's impossible. When you are sure that you understand the lesson, you can continue with the exercises. Third Conditional Introduction The third conditional (also called conditional type 3) is a structure used for talking about unreal situations in the past. This page will explain how the third conditional is formed, and when to use it. The structure of a third conditional sentence Like the other conditionals, a third conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an “if” clause and a main clause: IF clause main clause If I had studied harder, I would have passed the exam. Explanation: I failed the exam, because I didn't study hard enough. If the “if” clause comes first, a comma is usually used. If the “if” clause comes second, there is no need for a comma: main clause IF clause I probably would have passed the exam if I had studied harder. We use different verb forms in each part of a third conditional: IF clause if + subject + past perfect verb* main clause subject + would (OR could, OR might) have + past participle *The past perfect is formed with the auxiliary verb “had”, and the past participle (or third form) of the verb. Note also that third conditional forms can be contracted: Full form If I had studied harder, I probably would have passed the exam. Contracted form If I'd studied harder, I probably would've passed the exam. Using the third conditional The third conditional is used to talk about things which did not happen in the past. If your native language does not have a similar construction, you may find this a little strange, but it can be very useful. It is often used to express criticism or regret: Example Explanation If you had driven more carefully, you would not have had an accident. Criticism: You had an accident because you didn't drive carefully enough. If we had played a little better, we could have won the game. Regret: We didn't play well, so we lost the game. If you had saved your money, you could have bought a computer. Criticism: You didn't save your money, so now you can't afford a computer. If it had snowed, we could have gone skiing. Regret: It didn't snow, so we couldn't go skiing. When you are sure that you understand the lesson, you can continue with the exercises.


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Sobre el autor

Agustín Burgos Baena
Agustín Burgos Baena

Máster de finanzas en dirección financiera, con especialización en análisis bursátil y banca y gestión de activos financieros. Doctorando en Administración sobre la gestión y la creación de valor en las empresas.